A complete guide to BPO (Business Process Outsourcing)

A thorough guide to BPOs; what they are, the risks and benefits, how to use them
Written by:

Will Beukers

As your company grows, handling the increasing complexity of business functions becomes a challenging task. This is where Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) can be a game-changer. BPO is a strategy where you partner with external third-party service providers to handle specific business functions. These providers bring specialised capabilities and expertise to the table, effectively lightening your workload and supporting your company’s expansion.

Defining BPO: a basic overview

Understanding BPO in simple terms involves recognising it as a delegation of tasks. These tasks, typically non-core yet essential to your business operations, such as customer service, accounting, or data entry, are managed by external organisations. These outsourced providers are specialists in their respective fields, equipped with the necessary tools and trained personnel to efficiently handle these operations. This outsourcing enables your business to focus more intently on its primary objectives and growth strategies.

In business, the choice between traditional models and BPO is crucial. Traditional models encompass all operations, from core activities like product development to supportive roles such as customer service. This approach often stretches resources, potentially diverting focus from key goals. Conversely, BPO offers a streamlined alternative. It allows companies to delegate non-core functions to specialised providers, sharpening focus on their main strengths. This shift not only enhances operational efficiency but also fosters innovation and strategic development, crucial for business growth.

Evolution of the BPO industry

The BPO industry has undergone a significant transformation, mirroring the dynamic shifts in the global business environment. Originating post-World War II, BPO was initially confined within national boundaries. However, it was in 1967, with the inception of The Electronic Data Systems Corporation, that BPO began to be recognized as a key strategic business practice. This early era of modern outsourcing was characterised by innovative ‘time-sharing’ methods via remote terminals and sophisticated computers, prominently led by industry leaders like IBM.

The 1990s marked a period of rapid growth and evolution for the BPO sector, fuelled by economic liberalisation in Asia and breakthroughs in telecommunications and internet technology. This era witnessed the migration of BPO services to countries like India, China, and the Philippines, known for their large pools of skilled yet cost-effective labour. The focus during this time was predominantly on outsourcing non-core, operational processes such as customer service and human resources, reflecting a strategic shift in global business practices.

Fast forward to today, the BPO industry is one of the fastest evolving industries, heavily influenced by technological advancements and global economic conditions.

Types of BPO services

Digital transformation: BPO is undergoing significant digital transformation with the adoption of advanced technologies to streamline processes and enhance customer experiences.

Data security and compliance: With increasing data breaches, data security has become a paramount concern within the BPO industry. There is a concerted effort to strengthen data protection measures, ensuring strict adherence to data security regulations and safeguarding sensitive information.

Remote work and virtual teams: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has been a catalyst for the widespread adoption of remote work in the BPO field. This change opened doors to a global talent pool, offering greater operational flexibility and a more diverse workforce.

Customer-centric approach: Centring on the customer, the industry is increasingly focusing on delivering solutions tailored to individual needs. This customer-centric approach leverages data analytics to gain valuable insights, facilitating the creation of personalised experiences that resonate with clients.

Robotic process automation (RPA): A significant development in this technological evolution is the rise of RPA. RPA is transforming the BPO industry by automating routine tasks, reducing the likelihood of errors, and significantly enhancing operational efficiency.

Looking to the future, the BPO sector is poised for continued growth and evolution, adapting to emerging technologies and shifting market demands. It’s anticipated that the BPO landscape will be increasingly shaped by further innovations in automation, artificial intelligence, and cloud technologies. Moreover, there’s likely to be a heightened emphasis on strategic partnerships and the provision of value-added services that extend beyond conventional back-office operations. This evolution signifies a transformative phase in the industry, aligning with modern business needs and technological advancements.

The role of BPO in businesses

BPO has become an integral part of modern business strategies, enabling organisations to focus on their core competencies while external specialists handle various operational tasks. BPO services span a wide range, catering to many needs of businesses.

Customer support services: One of the most prevalent forms of BPO is customer support outsourcing, where companies entrust their customer service operations, such as call centres, to external firms. This allows businesses to offer efficient, professional customer support without the overhead of maintaining in-house teams.

Human resources outsourcing (HRO): HRO includes activities like payroll processing, employee benefits management, and recruitment. Outsourcing these HR functions can help companies streamline their human resources management, often leading to cost savings and improved efficiency.

Finance and accounting outsourcing: This encompasses tasks such as bookkeeping, tax processing, and financial analysis. By outsourcing these functions, businesses can benefit from specialised financial expertise and insights, while also reducing the cost associated with maintaining a full-fledged finance department.

Contact centre outsourcing

Contact centre outsourcing is a significant segment within the BPO industry. It involves companies delegating their customer interaction services to external centres. These centres handle various communication channels, including phone calls, emails, web chats, and social media interactions. The primary aim is to provide high-quality customer service while reducing operational costs. Contact centres are equipped with advanced technology and skilled personnel to handle large volumes of customer interactions efficiently.

Risks and challenges in BPO

Common risks in BPO

Security concerns top the list of risks in BPO, as sharing sensitive data with third-party providers can lead to potential breaches. Quality control issues arise when ensuring that the BPO provider upholds the same standards as the hiring company. A significant risk is the potential loss of control over certain business operations, which can lead to misalignment with the company’s objectives. Hidden costs, such as transition and management expenses, can often make BPO more expensive than initially expected. Lastly, overdependence on suppliers can lead to challenges in maintaining business flexibility and innovation.

Mitigating BPO risks

To mitigate these risks, a comprehensive vendor assessment is crucial. It involves conducting thorough due diligence on potential BPO providers to evaluate their credibility, security measures, and quality standards. Establishing clear contracts and Service Level Agreements (SLAs) sets expectations and accountability. Regular monitoring and communication with the BPO provider help in promptly addressing any arising issues. Developing a robust risk management plan, including contingency strategies for critical operations, is essential. Lastly, a balanced approach that combines in-house and outsourced operations can prevent overreliance on external providers.

Impacts of BPO: the good and the bad

Positive impact of BPO

Cost efficiency and focus on core competencies: One of the primary benefits of BPO is cost savings, allowing businesses to access skilled professionals and technology at a lower cost compared to in-house operations. This has been beneficial for companies in various sectors, enabling them to focus more on their core competencies and strategic initiatives. For example, an e-commerce business specialising in arts and crafts outsourced its administrative, marketing, and customer service functions to Unity Communications. This allowed the company to focus more on its core product development and sales, leading to increased income and business growth.

Improved customer experience and market expansion: Businesses have used BPO to enhance customer support and expand into global markets. For instance, a software company achieved significant market expansion by outsourcing its multilingual customer support, which was critical for serving international markets effectively.

Operational excellence and innovation: Companies have also leveraged BPO for operational excellence and innovation. For example, a technology startup outsourced its research and development, gaining access to specialised expertise and accelerating product innovation.

Negative impact of BPO

Hidden costs and loss of process visibility: One of the significant risks associated with BPO includes hidden costs, which can be detrimental, especially for small businesses. This can lead to unexpected financial strain. Moreover, outsourcing can sometimes result in a loss of visibility and control over certain processes, potentially impacting the quality and integrity of operations.

Challenges with offshore outsourcing: Offshore outsourcing, while offering cost savings, can present challenges like time zone differences, cultural nuances, and language barriers. These issues require effective communication and management strategies to overcome.

Risk of over-dependence: Businesses might become overdependent on their BPO providers, which can lead to challenges in maintaining flexibility and innovation within their internal processes.

Choosing the right BPO partner

When choosing the right BPO partner, there are several key factors and strategies to consider to ensure that your choice aligns with your business goals. Here’s a guide to finding a partner who’s right for you: 

1. Identifying your needs: The first step is to clearly define the tasks and processes you wish to outsource. This could range from HR and call centre operations to more specialised services like IT or digital support. Knowing what you need helps narrow your search and target vendors with the right expertise.

2.  Assess technology and infrastructure: A reliable BPO partner should possess state-of-the-art technology and robust security measures. This includes data security protocols, disaster recovery plans, and the ability to integrate with emerging technologies like AI and cloud computing.

3. Evaluate expertise and experience: Look for BPO providers who specialise in the specific processes or industries relevant to your business. Consider their track record, domain knowledge, and previous success with similar clients.

4. Quality and performance metrics: Review the BPO partner’s commitment to quality by examining their performance metrics and certifications like ISO standards or Six Sigma. This reflects their dedication to quality assurance and process improvement.

5. Scalability and flexibility: The ability of a BPO provider to accommodate your changing business needs is crucial. Ensure that they can scale their operations to match your growth and adapt to changing circumstances, such as market fluctuations.

6. Cost and value proposition: While cost is a significant factor, it should not be the only consideration. Evaluate the overall value proposition of the BPO partner, including cost savings, process optimisation, and access to specialised skills.

7. Cultural compatibility and communication: It’s important that the BPO partner’s culture aligns with your organisation’s. Effective communication and a collaborative approach are essential for a successful partnership.

8. Client references and testimonials: Requesting and checking client references can provide valuable insights into the provider’s reputation, client satisfaction, and the quality of their services.

Remember, selecting a BPO partner is not just a transactional decision but a strategic partnership that can significantly impact your business growth and efficiency. Conducting thorough research and due diligence is key to finding the perfect BPO partner that aligns with your goals and values.

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), especially in customer service areas like call and contact centres, has become a critical strategy in today’s business landscape. These partnerships not only alleviate the burden of managing large operations, but also enable businesses to concentrate on their core competencies, fostering growth and innovation. Outsourcing customer service functions ensures efficient, professional support, while the use of advanced technologies in these outsourced centres enhances service quality and operational efficiency.

BPO’s role in modern business is further underscored by its adaptability to technological advances and the global economy. The integration of digital solutions like Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and AI in BPO services has revolutionised operational processes, improving efficiency and reducing costs. Furthermore, the shift towards remote work models in the BPO industry has expanded access to a global talent pool, increasing operational flexibility. While embracing these advantages, businesses must also navigate potential risks such as security concerns and quality control, necessitating careful vendor selection and a balanced approach to outsourcing. Overall, BPO stands as an invaluable tool for businesses seeking to optimise resources, enhance customer service, and maintain a competitive edge in the dynamic global market.


What is a BPO?

BPO stands for business process outsourcing. It describes partnering with an external service provider to outsource selected functions of a company. For example, in the food and beverage industry, BPO might look like using an external vendor to provide cutlery or packaging. 

How does BPO facilitate innovation in businesses?

By outsourcing routine and specialised tasks, companies free up resources that can be redirected towards innovation and growth. BPO providers can also bring fresh perspectives and expertise to a business, driving innovation in processes and services.

How does BPO facilitate innovation in businesses?

By outsourcing routine and specialised tasks, companies free up resources that can be redirected towards innovation and growth. BPO providers can also bring fresh perspectives and expertise to a business, driving innovation in processes and services.

How does BPO benefit small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)?

BPO offers SMEs significant benefits, like cost reduction, access to advanced technologies, and the ability to focus on core business activities. Outsourcing non-core tasks allows SMEs to manage resources more efficiently and gain competitive advantages in their market.

Can BPO be customised according to specific business needs?

Yes, BPO services are highly customisable! Providers work closely with businesses to understand their specific needs and challenges, offering tailored solutions that align with their goals and operational requirements.